Chapter 25

North of New Spain
Chapter 25 Summary
All Europeans’ expectations were about gold in America. Their predictions were from past explorations. They found gold in Peru and Mexico. Wise spanishmen said seven cities named Cibola were in America. Legend has it that seven priests wandered off and each found seven cities abundant with riches. They have sought after Cibola in Asia and in Africa. New Spain’s, a.k.a Mexico’s, governor chose men for the Cibola expedition. Esteban and fray Marcos de Niza were two of these men. Esteban was a slave to a red-bearded, disorganized, cruel, one-eyed, rich man named Panfilo de Narvaes. He had lost his eye in a recent war with Hernando Cortes.
Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, a surviving slave, never wrote about alligators or poisonous snakes. He didn’t even refer to ducks, geese, heron, deer, rabbit, bears, mountain lions, and a marsupial named an opossum. Opossums were anonymous to Europe. Indians serenaded explorers with reed-flute music. Narvaes killed a lot of Indians for his hatred of music. Spaniards found corn, cornfields, and great farming land. The journey was no use. All they did were kill and enslave Indians, and fought “giant” mosquitoes. Land ho!! Esteban reached land (around Galveston island). He was captured by Indians and learned their ways.

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